- Installation on Linux
- Installation on Windows
- Command line options
- File menu
- Machine menu
- Options menu
- Memory configuration files
- Reading I/O ports in the debugger
- Lua scripting
On Linux and other POSIX platforms, the emulator is installed from the source code available at the SourceForge download page, or the most recent state of the code can be downloaded from Git with the following command:
git clone git://git.code.sf.net/p/ep128emu/git ep128emu
In addition to the standard development tools (a recent version of the GNU C/C++ compiler, binutils, etc.), you need the following packages:
- SCons (http://www.scons.org/)
- Python 2.x interpreter for running SCons
- FLTK 1.3.x (http://www.fltk.org/software.php?VERSION=1.3.4) or 1.1.x (http://www.fltk.org/software.php?VERSION=1.1.10)
- this library should be compiled with the --enable-threads 'configure' option - many Linux distributions include binaries of FLTK 1.1 built without --enable-threads, so you may need to compile it from sources
- on MacOS X, FLTK 1.1.7 needs to be patched with the included fltk-1.1.7-MacOSX.patch file
- PortAudio (http://www.portaudio.com/download.html), version 18 and 19 are supported, but v19 is recommended
- libsndfile (http://www.mega-nerd.com/libsndfile/#Download)
The following packages are optional:
- OpenGL for improved video display and effects
- SDL (http://www.libsdl.org/) 1.2 for joystick input; NOTE: on Linux, versions 1.2.10 and newer do not work if they are statically linked and were built with video support (--enable-video)
- Lua (http://www.lua.org/ or http://www.luajit.org/) for scripting in the debugger; version 5.1 or newer is recommended, but 5.0 is also supported
- libcurl (https://curl.haxx.se/) for ROM download support in epmakecfg
Once these are installed, you can edit the file SConstruct in the top level source directory for setting compiler flags etc., and run the command scons -j 2 for building the emulator. The following options can be passed to scons:
- -j N - maximum number of parallel jobs to be run by scons, it is recommended to set N to the number of logical cores of your CPU
- win64=1 - cross-compile Windows x86_64 binaries using Wine and this MinGW package
- win32=1 - cross-compile Windows i686 binaries using Wine and this MinGW package
- linux32=1 - build 32-bit Linux binaries on a 64-bit system without using pkg-config
- nosdl=1 - disable the use of SDL and joystick support; this option may be needed on Linux with statically linked SDL versions 1.2.10 and newer that were built with video support enabled
- nolua=1 - build without support for Lua scripting
- utils=0 - do not build the optional utilities (epimgconv, epcompress and dtf)
- glshaders=0 - disable the use of OpenGL shaders
- debug=1 - compile binaries for debugging (no optimization and more warnings)
- release=0 - do not build a release version: binaries are not stripped and are compiled with less optimization; implied by debug=1
- luajit=1 - use LuaJIT (installed as Lua 5.1) on Windows
- z80cmos=1 - emulate the CMOS version of the Z80 CPU
- sdext=0 - disable SD card (SDEXT) emulation
- resid=0 - disable SID card emulation
- curl=0 - do not use libcurl in epmakecfg for downloading the ROM package
- cflags="..." - additional flags to be passed to the compiler or linker
- nopkgconfig=1 - disable the use of pkg-config and fltk-config to automatically configure libraries
- cache=1 - enable the use of scons build cache in .build_cache
An install target is also supported by SConstruct, this will install the emulator binaries under ~/bin, and the configuration and data files under ~/.local/share/ep128emu. Running scons -c install will remove most of the installed files.
Alternatively, you can copy the executables (dtf, ep128emu, epcompress, epimgconv, epmakecfg and tapeedit) to any directory that is in the PATH; on MacOS X, an .app package is created in ep128emu.app.
When installing the first time, you also need to set up configuration files and ROM images. If epmakecfg was built with libcurl support, the following steps can be skipped, the configuration utility is run automatically by ep128emu when needed, and it can download and install the ROM images.
Before installation, download ep128emu_roms-2.0.11.bin from here and copy it to:
- ~/.local/share/ep128emu/roms - for scons install
- ~/.ep128emu/roms - for manual installation
- ~/Library/Application Support/ep128emu/roms - on Mac OS X
If not using scons install, run epmakecfg and click OK to the windows that pop up asking for the base directory of configuration and data files, and if configuration files should be installed.
It is possible to reinstall configuration files later by running the epmakecfg utility. ROM images can be installed manually by downloading ep128emu_roms-126.96.36.199z from here and extracting it in the correct directory. The .bin format ROM package can be unpacked with the command epcompress -x -a ep128emu_roms-2.0.11.bin in the current directory, epmakecfg does this automatically if it finds the package where the ROM images need to be installed.
Installable binary packages are available at the SourceForge (older stable releases) and GitHub (latest beta versions) download pages. To install, just run the executable, and follow the instructions. The installer can automatically download the ROM images needed for running the emulator, but these can also be installed manually by downloading ep128emu_roms-188.8.131.52z from here and extracting it to roms\ under the selected installation folder.
When asked if configuration files should be reinstalled, click 'OK' when installing the first time, but this step can be skipped in later installations to preserve the configuration.
WARNING: on Windows, there may be timing problems when using some dual core CPUs, or power management features that change the clock frequency of the CPU while the emulator is running. These issues can result in slow or erratic emulation speed, not running at 100% speed in real-time mode, or temporary lockups. If you encounter such problems, forcing the emulator to run on a single core (by setting the CPU affinity for ep128emu.exe), and/or disabling dynamic changes to the CPU clock frequency by power management could fix the timing issues. Installing and using an utility like AMD Dual Core Optimizer may also solve the problem. Note that bad emulation performance might also be caused by display or audio drivers, so it is recommended to check (and upgrade, if necessary) those as well.
Command line options
- -h | -help | --help print the list of available command line options
- -tvc select the type of machine (Enterprise, ZX Spectrum, CPC or TVC) to be emulated
load an ASCII format configuration file on startup, and apply settings
load snapshot or demo file on startup
- -opengl use OpenGL video driver (this is the default, and is recommended when hardware accelerated OpenGL is available)
- -no-opengl use software video driver; this is slower than OpenGL when used at high resolutions, and also disables many display effects, but should work on all machines; however, it will use a color depth of 24 bits, while in OpenGL mode the textures are 16 bit (R5G6B5) only, to improve performance
select GUI color scheme N (0: default, 1: Win2000, 2: plastic, or 3: Gtk+)
- OPTION=VALUE set configuration variable 'OPTION' to 'VALUE'; the available variable names are the same as those used in ASCII format configuration files
- OPTION set boolean configuration variable 'OPTION' to true
For more detailed and up to date usage information, see also the README file included with the emulator.
Configuration / Load from ASCII file (Alt + Q)
Select and load an ASCII format configuration file and apply the new settings. If the configuration file does not include all the supported options, those that are omitted are left unchanged.
Configuration / Load from binary file (Alt + L)
Load an ep128emu format binary file, which may be a previously saved snapshot, demo, or a binary format configuration file.
Configuration / Save as ASCII file
Save the current emulator configuration to an ASCII text file, which can be edited with any text editor, and can be loaded at a later time.
Configuration / Save
Save the current emulator configuration in binary format to the default file (~/.ep128emu/ep128cfg.dat). This is also automatically done when exiting the emulator.
Configuration / Revert
Reload emulator configuration from ~/.ep128emu/ep128cfg.dat, and apply the original settings.
Save snapshot (Alt + S)
Save a snapshot of the current state of the emulated machine to the selected file. The snapshot will also include the current memory configuration and ROM images, but clock frequency and timing settings are not restored when loading a snapshot. The file format may be subject to changes between different releases of the emulator, but new versions of the emulator can still load old snapshots.
Note that the state of any disk drives is currently not saved, and the drives are reset on loading a snapshot.
Starting from version 2.0.10 of ep128emu, snapshot and demo files can optionally be saved in a compressed format, if this feature is enabled in the machine configuration. Compressing a large snapshot can take a few seconds on a slow PC, but the loading time is not affected noticeably.
Load snapshot (Alt + L)
Load an ep128emu format binary file, which may be a previously saved snapshot, demo, or a binary format configuration file.
Quick snapshot / Set file name
Select file name for quick snapshots. The default is ~/.ep128emu/qs_ep128.dat. This setting is not saved on exit, and quick snapshots are always saved in uncompressed format.
Quick snapshot / Save (Ctrl + F9)
Save snapshot to the quick snapshot file (see notes above).
Quick snapshot / Load (Ctrl + F10)
Load the quick snapshot file if it exists.
Save snapshot (including clock frequency and timing settings) and record keyboard events to the selected file until the recording is stopped. The events can be replayed with accurate timing when the file is loaded later. Note that the file format may change between different releases of the emulator, and the timing may also be incorrect when using a different version to play a demo file.
Stop demo (Alt + K)
Stop any currently running demo playback or recording.
Load demo (Alt + L)
Load an ep128emu format binary file, which may be a previously saved snapshot, demo, or a binary format configuration file.
Record audio / Start...
Write 16 bit signed PCM sound output to a WAV format sound file.
Record audio / Stop
Close sound output file if it is currently being written.
Record video / Start...
Open new AVI file for video recording. This increases the CPU usage significantly, and since the data is written without compression, it will take up a lot of disk space. If the size of the output file reaches 2 GB, it is automatically closed, and the emulator asks for a new file to continue the recording.
NOTE: the video and audio streams in the AVI file are not affected by any of the display or sound configuration settings. There are two options in the machine configuration that affect the video capture: the frame rate and the codec. It is recommended to use the defaults (RLE8 768x576 at 50 fps) when possible, but RLE8 is not always supported by other software, in those cases it may be necessary to use the YV12 codec, which decreases the quality while usually increasing the output file size and CPU usage.
Record video / Stop
Stop video capture, and close any AVI file that is currently being written.
Save screenshot (F12, Alt + C)
Save a screenshot in 8 bit PNG format. The video output is captured immediately after activating this menu item, and is saved at a resolution of 768x576 without any processing (color correction, effects, etc.).
Quit (Shift + F12)
Exit the emulator.
Reset / Reset (F11)
This has the same effect as using the reset button on the real machine.
Reset / Force reset (Ctrl + F11)
In addition to a normal reset, make sure that the emulated machine is really restarted using the standard ROM reset routines, and do not allow programs to disable reset by setting custom (RAM) handlers.
Reset / Reset clock frequencies
Reset clock frequency and timing settings to those specified in the machine configuration; this is normally only useful after demo playback, which may override the settings.
Reset / Reset machine configuration (Shift + F11)
Reset memory configuration (RAM size, ROM images), clock frequency and timing settings according to the machine configuration, and clear all RAM data. Implies 'Force reset' and 'Reset clock frequencies'. Reverting the configuration can be useful after snapshot loading or demo playback, as these may change the settings.
Quick configuration / Load config 1 (PageDown)
Load the configuration file ~/.ep128emu/epvmcfg1.cfg, and apply the new settings.
Quick configuration / Load config 2 (PageUp)
Load the configuration file ~/.ep128emu/epvmcfg2.cfg, and apply the new settings.
Quick configuration / Save config 1
Save the current clock frequency and timing settings to ~/.ep128emu/epvmcfg1.cfg.
Quick configuration / Save config 2
Save the current clock frequency and timing settings to ~/.ep128emu/epvmcfg2.cfg.
Display / Set size to 384x288
Display / Set size to 768x576
Display / Set size to 1152x864
Resize the emulator window to predefined width/height values; this has no effect in fullscreen mode. While the window can also be resized using the window manager, sizes that are integer multiples of the actual screen resolution of the emulated machine may look better, particularly when texture filtering is not used, and are also slightly faster when using the software video driver.
Display / Cycle display mode (F9)
Cycle between these four display modes:
- window with no menu bar
- window with menu bar (this is the default)
- fullscreen with menu bar
- fullscreen with no menu bar (recommended for mouse emulation)
Sound / Increase volume
Increase sound output volume by about 2 dB.
Sound / Decrease volume
Decrease sound output volume by about 2 dB.
Disk / Configure... (Alt + D)
Opens a dialog for setting up floppy, IDE and SD card emulation.
For each floppy drive, an image file can be selected, and disk geometry parameters can be specified. If the file name is left empty, that means having no disk in that particular drive. It may also be possible to directly access a real disk by using the /dev/fd* devices (on Linux) or \\.\A: (on Windows) as the image file.
Any of the geometry parameters can be zero or negative to have the value calculated automatically from the others (if available), the image file size, and the file system header.
The IDE and SD card emulation support image files in raw and VHD format (the latter should have a .vhd extension), with a file size of up to 2 GB. In the case of VHD files, the disk geometry is determined by the VHD footer, while the geometry of raw images is calculated from the file size. Depending on the image format, the model number string of the emulated drive will include "(VHD)" or the automatically assigned geometry.
The emulator package includes a 126 MB VHD format IDE disk image in disk/ide126m.vhd.bz2, with 4 FAT12 formatted 31.5 MB partitions.
Note that with the current version of IDE.ROM, after changing IDE disk images, a cold reset is required for the changes to be detected, and the disk change flag is also set on snapshot or demo loading.
All data storage devices are disabled while recording or playing a demo.
Disk / Remove floppy / Drive A
Disk / Remove floppy / Drive B
Disk / Remove floppy / Drive C
Disk / Remove floppy / Drive D
Disk / Remove floppy / All drives
These are just shortcuts for setting the image file name for a specific floppy drive to an empty string.
Disk / Replace floppy / Drive A (Alt + H)
Disk / Replace floppy / Drive B
Disk / Replace floppy / Drive C
Disk / Replace floppy / Drive D
Disk / Replace floppy / All drives
Set the image file name for a specific (or all) floppy drive to an empty string, and then set the original file name again. This is mostly useful when accessing real floppy disks, and should be used after the disk is changed.
Set working directory (Alt + F)
Set the directory to be accessed by the optional file I/O ROM extension modules.
Memory configuration files
While the GUI based memory configuration is easy to use, and is sufficient for creating the most commonly used configurations, it does have a number of limitations. Using a configuration file - which is a simple text file with a format described below - makes it possible to have RAM, ROM, or no memory at any segment, and image files can also be loaded to RAM (e.g. for emulating static RAM).
NOTE: if a memory configuration file is specified, the RAM/ROM settings in the "Machine configuration" GUI are ignored.
A memory configuration file may contain any number of segment range definitions, each being a line in one of the following formats for RAM or ROM:
0xNN RAM "fileName" nSegments
0xNN ROM "fileName" nSegments
where 'NN' is the number of the first segment (hexadecimal), 'fileName' is the name of the file to be loaded (with full path; backslash or double quote characters in the name should be escaped with a backslash), and 'nSegments' is the number of segments to be defined as RAM or ROM (decimal). If 'nSegments' is not specified, then it defaults to 1 for an empty file name, otherwise it is determined by the size of the image file. If 'fileName' is also omitted, then it means a single empty segment.
The configuration file may also include comments and empty lines. A comment can begin with the semicolon or '#' character, and the rest of the line is ignored.
Similarly to images loaded in the GUI ROM configuration, it is not necessary for the files to have a size that is an integer multiple of 16384 bytes: the last segment is padded with FFh bytes. An empty file name will initialize RAM segments to FFh bytes, while in the case of ROM, it means that the segments will be empty. If the file is longer than the size defined by 'nSegments', the data is truncated; if it is too short, then the segments are repeated.
By default, segments 00h..FBh are empty, and FCh..FFh are RAM. The type of the last four segments (the video memory) cannot be changed to ROM.
A simple example file, assuming that the emulator is installed to "C:\Program Files\ep128emu2":
; EXOS 2.1 at segments 0, 1 (and repeated at segments 2, 3)
0x00 ROM "C:\\Program Files\\ep128emu2\\roms\\exos21.rom" 4
; IS-BASIC 2.1 at segment 4
0x04 ROM "C:\\Program Files\\ep128emu2\\roms\\basic21.rom"
; 128K RAM at segments F8h..FFh
0xF8 RAM "" 8
Reading I/O ports in the debugger
Write-only I/O ports are readable in the monitor and Lua scripts, and return the last value written to the port. There are also some changes to the address decoding compared to what is seen by the emulated Z80 code, depending on the machine type:
- below port address 20H, the Kempston joystick state is read from all addresses
- the last value written to the ULA is read from any other even address that is less than 100H
- in Spectrum 128 mode, if the address is less than 100H, and the lowest two bits are 01B, the memory paging register is returned
- reading any other I/O port below 100H returns FFH
- reading from ports 0xxxxxxxxxxxxx0xB does not write the data bus state to the memory paging register
- when reading the gate array/RAM configuration port, the function (pen/color/video mode/memory configuration) can be selected in bits 6 and 7 of the address; for example, reading port 7F40H returns the color of the currently selected pen
- in the address range 0 to 9FH, many I/O registers can be read directly:
- 00H-1FH: 6845 CRTC registers
- 20H-2FH: gate array palette
- 30H-3FH: gate array border color
- 40H-4FH: AY-3-8912 registers
- 50H-5FH: 8255 PPI registers
- 0101x000B: port A current state (input or output)
- 0101x001B: port B current state (input or output)
- 0101x010B: port C current state (input or output)
- 0101xx11B: control register
- 0101x100B: last value written to port A register
- 0101x101B: last value written to port B register
- 0101x110B: last value written to port C register
- 60H-6FH: keyboard matrix state
- 70H: currently selected CRTC register
- 71H: CRTC flags
- bit 0: 1 if the "display enabled" output is active
- bit 1: 1 if the HSYNC output is active
- bit 2: 1 if the VSYNC output is active
- bit 3: 1 if the current field is odd in interlaced modes
- bit 4: 1 if the "cursor enabled" output is active
- 72H: current video memory address / low
- 73H: current video memory address / high
- 74H: video mode (0 to 3)
- 75H: currently selected pen number
- 76H: gate array IRQ counter (0 to 51)
- 77H: AY-3-8912 register selected
- 78H: RAM configuration (bits 6 and 7 are RAM enable flags for page 0 and page 3)
- 79H: currently selected expansion ROM bank
- 7AH-7FH: unused, FFH is returned
- 80H-9FH: uPD765 floppy drive controller registers and state
- 80H: FDC phase (0: idle, 1: command, 2: execution, 3: result)
- 81H: last command code
- 82H: motor state (last byte written to 0FA7EH & 01H)
- 83H: currently selected physical head (0 or 1) * 4 + drive
- 84H: CPU<->FDC data transfer position LSB
- 85H: CPU<->FDC data transfer position MSB
- 86H: CPU<->FDC data transfer size LSB
- 87H: CPU<->FDC data transfer size MSB
- 88H: logical cylinder ID
- 89H: logical head ID
- 8AH: logical sector ID
- 8BH: sector size code
- 8CH: last sector ID (EOT), or sector count for format track
- 8DH: gap length
- 8EH: sector data length (DTL), or STP for scan commands
- 8FH: filler byte (format track only)
- 90H: first byte in command/data/result buffer
- 91H: second byte in command/data/result buffer
- 92H: third byte in command/data/result buffer
- 93H: fourth byte in command/data/result buffer
- 94H: ST1 for read/write commands
- 95H: ST2 for read/write commands
- 96H: specify parameter 1 (step rate / head unload time)
- 97H: specify parameter 2 (head load time)
- 98H: ST3 for sense drive status on drive 0
- 99H: ST3 for sense drive status on drive 1
- 9AH: ST3 for sense drive status on drive 2
- 9BH: ST3 for sense drive status on drive 3
- 9CH: drive 0 cylinder number (PCN0)
- 9DH: drive 1 cylinder number (PCN1)
- 9EH: drive 2 cylinder number (PCN2)
- 9FH: drive 3 cylinder number (PCN3)
- unlike the other machine types, I/O watchpoints are set on the upper 8 bits of the address
- Enterprise: when the SD card emulation is enabled, segment 07H is handled in a special way, and its original contents cannot be accessed:
- 0000H-1FFFH: a 8 KB page of the 64 KB flash ROM
- 2000H-3BFFH: 7 KB static RAM
- 3C00H-3FFFH: memory mapped I/O, 4 registers are repeated 256 times
- xxxxxxxxxxxx01B (status):
- bit 0: 1 if CS0 is active
- bit 1: 1 if CS1 is active
- bit 2: 1 if the card is in idle state
- xxxxxxxxxxxx10B (ROM page) is readable in the debugger
- xxxxxxxxxxxx11B (high speed read configuration):
- bit 7: 1 if high speed reading is enabled
Starting from version 2.0.5, it is possible to run scripts written in Lua from the debugger. This document only describes the use of scripts in the emulator, and the new API functions added; for general information about programming in Lua, see http://www.lua.org/docs.html.
Clicking the Run button will run the script, and also enable the breakpoint callback function (see below) if it is defined. If there are any syntax or runtime errors, the script is terminated, and the breakpoint callback is disabled. After making any changes to the script, you need to click Run and restart the script for the changes to take effect.
It is possible to define a breakpoint callback function in the script, which will be automatically called whenever a breakpoint is triggered, and the debugger window would be shown. This function has the following syntax:
function breakPointCallback(bpType, addr, value)
where showWindow is a boolean value, which, if true, will allow the debugger window to be shown like normal, or have the emulated program continue without any break if it is false. The four parameters passed to the function are as follows:
The type of break, one of the following:
- 0: breakpoint at opcode read by the CPU
- 1: data read from memory
- 2: data written to memory
- 3: opcode read in single step mode; this happens when Step or Step over are being used, and if the breakpoint callback function returns false, breaks will continue to occur until true is returned
- 5: I/O port read
- 6: I/O port write
This is the 16 bit address where the break occured.
The value or CPU opcode read from or written to memory or I/O port.
The breakpoint callback function will remain active until either a new script is run which does not define one, or the Stop button is clicked.
NOTE: an infinite loop in the script will hang the emulator, and a very frequently called and/or complex breakpoint callback may slow down the emulation.
The following new functions are defined by the emulator for use in the scripts:
- AND(...), OR(...), XOR(...), SHL(a, b), SHR(a, b)
These simple helper functions implement bitwise operations that are not available in versions 5.2 and older of the Lua language by default. If the emulator is built with Lua 5.3 or newer, then using the operators &, |, ~, <<, and >> is recommended.
AND, OR, and XOR can take any number of integer arguments, and return the bitwise AND, OR, and XOR of the values, respectively. In the case of zero arguments, OR and XOR return zero, while AND returns -1.
SHL returns 'a' shifted to the left by 'b' bits, and SHR returns 'a' shifted to the right by 'b' bits. If 'b' is zero, the value is not changed, while a negative 'b' will reverse the direction of shifting. The result of shifting negative values to the right is unspecified.
- setBreakPoint(bptype, addr, priority)
Set a breakpoint or watchpoint at address 'addr' (0-0xFFFF), with priority 'priority' (0 to 3). 'bptype' can be one of the following values:
- 0: any memory access (read, write, or Z80 opcode read)
- 1: memory read
- 2: memory write
- 3: any memory access, same as bptype == 0
- 4: Z80 opcode read
- 5: I/O port read
- 6: I/O port write
- 7: I/O port read or write
An "ignore" breakpoint can be defined by adding 16 to 'bpType', this will disable other breakpoints when the program counter is at the address to be ignored. It is still possible to have a normal read or write breakpoint as well at the same address, by setting the lowest three bits of 'bpType' to 1, 2, or 3.
A 'priority' value of -1 will delete an existing breakpoint at the specified address.
The read, write, execute, and ignore flags are combined (bitwise OR) if multiple breakpoints are set at the same address, while the priority will be the highest value specified.
NOTE: the changes made to the breakpoint list by the script are not reflected in the breakpoint editor. To restore the previously defined breakpoints, click the Apply button.
Deletes all previously defined breakpoints.
Returns the segment selected for page 'n' (0 to 3).
In Spectrum or CPC emulation mode, RAM is mapped starting from segment 00H. For the CPC, segments 00H to 03H are the internal RAM, the lower ROM is at segment 80H, and expansion ROM 'n' is at segment C0H + 'n'; this function returns the number of the segment for read access (i.e. ROM if it is enabled). In the case of ZX Spectrum, the ROM is at segment 80H (Spectrum 16 and 48), or segments 80H and 81H (Spectrum 128).
Read a byte from 'addr' (0 to 0xFFFF) in the address space of the CPU.
- writeMemory(addr, value)
Write 'value' to 'addr' (0 to 0xFFFF) in the address space of the CPU.
Read a byte from 'addr' (0 to 0x3FFFFF) in the "physical" address space; the most significant 8 bits of 'addr' select the segment number.
- writeMemoryRaw(addr, value)
Write 'value' to 'addr' (0 to 0x3FFFFF) in the "physical" address space; the most significant 8 bits of 'addr' select the segment number.
- writeROM(addr, value)
This function is similar to writeMemoryRaw(), but it can write to any valid segment, even if it is ROM.
- readWord(addr), writeWord(addr, value)
readWordRaw(addr), writeWordRaw(addr, value)
These are similar to the memory read/write functions above, but read and write 16-bit LSB-first words instead of single bytes.
Read a byte from I/O port 'addr' (0 to 0xFFFF).
- writeIOPort(addr, value)
Write 'value' to I/O port 'addr' (0 to 0xFFFF).
- getPC(), getA(), getF(), getAF(), getB(), getC(), getBC(), getD(), getE(), getDE(), getH(), getL(), getHL()
getSP(), getIX(), getIY(), getAF_(), getBC_(), getDE_(), getHL_(), getIM(), getI(), getR(), getIFF1(), getIFF2()
These functions return the registers of the CPU.
- setPC(n), setA(n), setF(n), setAF(n), setB(n), setC(n), setBC(n), setD(n), setE(n), setDE(n), setH(n), setL(n), setHL(n)
setSP(n), setIX(n), setIY(n), setAF_(n), setBC_(n), setDE_(n), setHL_(n), setIM(n), setI(n), setR(n), setIFF1(n), setIFF2(n)
Set CPU registers. Note that changing the program counter only takes effect after the execution of one instruction is completed.
- getNextOpcodeAddr(addr[, cpuAddressMode])
Returns the address of the next Z80 instruction after the instruction at 'addr'. 'cpuAddressMode' selects the use of 16 bit CPU (if true or not specified) or 22 bit physical (if false) addresses.
Returns the current video position as two values (horizontal and vertical).
In the case of Spectrum emulation, both values are in pixels, in the range 0 to 447 and 0 to 311 for the Spectrum 48, or 0 to 455 and 0 to 310 for the Spectrum 128.
The upper left corner of the screen is at 0,0 (it is the cycle when the byte read from 4000H appears on the floating bus), and the lower right corner is at 255,191.
The line number is incremented 64 pixels before X=0 (X=384 or X=392 in 48K or 128K mode, respectively), but this may possibly change in future versions.
For the Enterprise, the horizontal position is in characters, in the range 0 to 56. The vertical position is the sum of the 8-bit line counter within the current line parameter block (LPB), which counts up to 255, and the video memory address of the LPB multiplied by 16.
In CPC emulation mode, the horizontal position is in characters, and the vertical position is in raster lines, i.e. 0 to 63 and 0 to 311 with the default CRTC settings. Position 0,0 is the upper left corner of the screen, this is the CRTC cycle when the first two bytes of the screen memory are read. In the case of interlaced video mode (CRTC register 8 = 3), the vertical position is in frame lines, and is incremented by two each line (it is even or odd depending on the current field).
- getRawAddress(segment, offset)
Calculates a 22-bit physical address from the specified segment and offset; only the 14 least significant bits of 'offset' are used.
Calculates a 22-bit physical address from a 16-bit CPU address, using the current memory paging.
- loadMemory(fname, asciiMode, cpuAddressMode, startAddr[, endAddr])
Loads a file to the memory area at 'startAddr' to 'endAddr' (the byte at 'endAddr' is still loaded). If no end address is specified, all data is read into memory. The file is searched in the working directory set for file I/O, and if the name is an empty string, a file selection dialog is shown. The expected file format is binary if 'asciiMode' is false, and hexadecimal dump (as written by saveMemory() or the 'S' monitor command) if 'asciiMode' is true. 'cpuAddressMode' selects the use of 16 bit CPU (if true) or 22 bit physical (if false) addresses.
The return value is the number of bytes actually read.
- saveMemory(fname, asciiMode, cpuAddressMode, startAddr, endAddr)
Save the memory area at 'startAddr' to 'endAddr' (the byte at 'endAddr' is still written) to a file, in binary (if 'asciiMode' is false) or hexadecimal dump (if 'asciiMode' is true) format. 'cpuAddressMode' selects the use of 16 bit CPU (if true) or 22 bit physical (if false) addresses.
- loadROMSegment(segment, fname, offset)
Load a file to the specified segment as ROM, skipping 'offset' bytes at the beginning of the file. An empty file name deletes the segment.
Prints any number of strings or numbers to the monitor.
No separator characters are inserted between the arguments being printed, and a newline character is automatically added at the end of the message.
mprint("Running Lua script example...")
setBreakPoint(4, 0x0040, 2) -- break on reading Z80 opcode at 0x0040
function breakPointCallback(t, a, v)
if t == 3 then -- allow stepping
-- check for EXOS 1 call with A=102
if getPC() ~= 0x0040 or getA() ~= 1 or readMemory(0x005A) ~= 102 then
-- read name parameter from memory
s = ""
n = readMemory(getDE())
for i = 1, n do
s = s..string.char(readMemory(getDE() + i))
mprint("Channel #102 is opened with name '", s, "'")
This will break when channel 102 is opened, and print the name parameter passed to the EXOS call.